Welcome to the THRIVE (Trajectories of Recovery after Intravenous Propofol vs. Inhaled VolatilE Anesthesia) trial.

This is a multi-site, randomized controlled trial, which compares patient outcomes and experiences under the two most commonly used forms of general anesthesia: propofol TIVA (total intravenous anesthesia) and inhaled volatile anesthesia (INVA).

Both of these types of general anesthesia have been used safely worldwide for decades. However, we do not know which anesthetic type results in better patient recovery after surgery. 

Study Information

Each day in the US, approximately 75,000 patients receive general anesthesia for surgery.  The decision to use inhaled volatile anesthesia (INVA) versus total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol is made by anesthesia clinicians. For the vast majority of patients, both techniques are safe and effective.

The THRIVE team hopes to benefit patient outcomes, by determining whether one of these commonly used approaches to general anesthesia improves patients’ quality of recovery and functional status, while decreasing risk of delirium, intraoperative awareness with recall, kidney injury, respiratory failure, and mortality. We want to improve the patient experience with anesthesia by including patient views and input throughout the THRIVE trial.

The THRIVE trial is being funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). PCORI is a non-profit organization which funds projects meant to answer important clinical questions that are most relevant to patients. It deeply values patient input, and requires that patients act as partners throughout the process of study design and implementation.

In the first phase of the trial, which started in July 2022, patients undergoing surgery at either Washington University in St, Louis or the University of Michigan may be eligible to participate.

In coming phases of the trial, patients undergoing surgery at hospitals and academic medical centers across the United States may be eligible to enroll. The trial will involve 12,500 patients participating over the next 5 years.

Meet The Team

Michael Avidan, MBBCh, FCASA
Sachin Kheterpal, MD, MBA

Brigham & Women’s Hospital
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Duke University Hospital
Henry Ford Detroit
Massachusetts General Hospital
MD Anderson Cancer Center
Memorial Sloan Kettering
NYU Langone Medical Center
Oregon Health & Science University
Stanford University
University of Arkansas
University of California San Francisco
University of Michigan
University of Pennsylvania
University of Utah
University of Virginia
University of Washington
Wake Forest University
Washington University St Louis
Weill Cornell Medicine
Yale School of Medicine

Mara Bollini, RN, BSN, MHA
Michael Burns, MD, PhD
Hugo Campos, Patient Partner
Jennifer Carron, CPXP, MSOM
Larry Chu, MD, MS BCH, MS EPI
David Clark, BBA
Chelsea Cloyd, MBA
Douglas Colquhoun, MB ChB, MSc, MPH
Ralph Dacey, MD
Leon du Toit, MBChB, MMed
Nicole Eyrich, MPH
Stephen H. Gregory, MD
Bruce Hall, MD, PhD, MBA
Bernadette Henrichs, PhD, CRNA, CCRN, CHSE, FAAN
Melissa Hicks, Patient Partner
Rosalinda V. Ignacio, MS
Heidi Klosterman, MEd, LPC, NCC
Alex Kronzer
Meghan Lane-Fall, MD
George Mashour, MD, PhD
Sherry McKinnon, MS
Mark Neuman, MD, MSc
Mary Politi, PhD
Amy Price, DPhil (Oxon)
Linda Robison, Patient Partner
Michelle Romanowski
Roya Saffary, MA, MD
Nirav Shah, MD
Anik Sinha
Cathie Spino, ScD
Laura Swisher, MS
Steven Thelen-Perry, MS
Brian Torres, DNP, CRNA
Phil Vlisides, MD
Shelley Vaughn, MPH
Zhenke Wu, PhD


Do you have suggestions for the THRIVE trial? We are always seeking input from patients who have experience with general anesthesia and would be interested in sharing their experiences. If you would like to suggest an idea or provide information so we can better understand the complex and individual experience of undergoing general anesthesia from the patient perspective, please let us know.

We appreciate your interest in our study. We cannot accept or respond to offers to participate in the trial through this contact form.

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